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Chair: Professor Salter
Professor: D. Libby; Associate Professors: Langhus, Martin; Assistant Professors:
Sh. Dunham, St. Dunham; Adjunct Faculty: Fairchild, C. Libby

The Chemistry Department at Moravian College provides students with a fundamental understanding of the concepts of chemistry and their application to advanced problems. Beginning in the general chemistry course, the program emphasizes exploration of chemical principles through hands-on experience with chemical instrumentation. All students have the opportunity to work with faculty members on original research projects that range from theoretical physical chemistry to biochemistry. The department is on the approved list of the American Chemical Society. Graduates who complete appropriate requirements of the society receive a bachelor's degree certified by the society.

Many chemistry majors go on to graduate school in chemistry, medicine, dentistry, and biological sciences. Others pursue careers in industrial or governmental research, technical sales, medical technology, technical law, library work, or secondary school chemistry.

The Major in Chemistry

The major in chemistry consists of nine course units above Chemistry 110, including Chemistry 113-114, 211-212, 220.2, 222, 331-332, and 370.2. The remaining course is selected by the student with the approval of the major advisor. Chemistry majors also must take Mathematics 170 (or its equivalent sequence Mathematics 106-166), Mathematics 171, and Physics 111-112.

The Minor in Chemistry

The minor in chemistry consists of five course units: Chemistry 113-114, 211, 222, and either 212 or 331.

The Interdepartmental Major

The six courses that compose Set I of the interdepartmental major in chemistry include Chemistry 113-114, 211, and 222. The remaining courses in chemistry and the six courses of Set II are selected by the student with the approval of the advisor.

Departmental Recommendations

Students planning graduate work in chemistry are advised to take additional advanced courses in chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, or biology.

Students wishing to obtain a bachelor's degree certified by the American Chemical Society are required to take a total of 13 chemistry courses. These must include those required for the basic major, plus Chemistry 311, Chemistry 327, Chemistry 341, and one additional 300-level chemistry course. Students are encouraged to use independent study (Chemistry 381) or Honors (Chemistry 400) to fulfill the final course requirement.

Students seeking certification to teach chemistry in secondary schools complete the requirements for a departmental major and the requirements for certification described under education and science education. Students interested in combining chemistry and general science certification should consult the requirements for general science certification under science education.

Courses in Chemistry

100. Chemistry and Society. This course for non-science majors explores fundamentals of chemistry, scientific method of inquiry, and past, present, and future impact of chemistry on society. Illustrations of general principles come from areas such as the environment, public health, and technological advances. Fall. Three 50-minute periods, one 3-hour laboratory. (F4)

108. Fundamentals of Chemistry. Introduction to inorganic, organic, and biochemistry. Topics include atomic structure, bonding, molecular structure, aqueous solutions, behavior of gases, acids, bases, buffers, respiration, energy, and radioisotopes. Emphasis on chemistry of life processes. Fall. Three 50-minute periods, one 50-minute problem session, one 3-hour laboratory. (F4)
St. Dunham

113-114. General Chemistry. Atomic theory and structure, behavior of matter, principles and laws, and the scientific method of working and reasoning. Laboratory consists of related physical-chemical experiments in first term; second-term lectures emphasize structure, chemical equilibrium, acid/base theory, and qualitative analysis, with laboratory work devoted to the same topics. Three 50-minute periods, one 50-minute problem session, one 3-hour laboratory. (F4)
Martin, Sh. Dunham

205. Environmental Chemistry. An overview of the primary chemical processes that affect our environment. Topics include natural cycles of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, as well as some major perturbations introduced by industrialized societies. Lab provides hands-on experience with current important analytical methods for studying the chemistry of the natural environment, analysis and interpretation of experimental data, and applications such as treatment of wastewater and abatement of atmospheric pollutants. Prerequisite: Chemistry 114. Three 50-minute periods, one 50-minute problem session, one 3-hour laboratory.
St. Dunham

211-212. Organic Chemistry. Exploration of elementary concepts of organic chemistry and their application to study of structure, reactivity and synthesis of organic compounds. Emphasis on correlation of the structures of molecules with their functions and explanation of these correlations on fundamental scientific principles. Laboratory uses open-ended exploratory approach for learning fundamental laboratory techniques, as well as providing experience with classical synthesis and qualitative organic analysis including hands-on experience with MS, FTIR, and FTNMR spectroscopic techniques and chemical analysis. Prerequisite: Chemistry 114. Three 50-minute periods, one 50-minute problem session, one 3-hour laboratory.
D. Libby

220.2. Methods in Chemical Research. Introduction to computer use in chemical experimentation and research, including spreadsheets and statistical programs to solve problems in chemical equilibrium and chemometrics. Real-time data acquisition hardware and software will be used to gather data for analysis in spreadsheets. Course also covers on-line searches of chemical literature using Chemical Abstracts and the Science Citation Index. Writing-intensive. Prerequisites: Chemistry 114 and Mathematics 170. Fall. One weekly 100-minute period.

222. Quantitative Analysis. Theory and application of classical quantitative analysis techniques, including gravimetric, titrimetric, potentiometric, visible spectrophotometric, and liquid-liquid extraction methods as applied to organic and inorganic material. Introduction to statistical treatment of experimental data and development of comprehensive understanding of solution equilibria. Substantial laboratory component provides hands-on experience with each method, applied to the assay of real samples. Prerequisites: Chemistry 114 and 220.2 or permission of instructor. Spring. Two 70-minute periods, two 3-hour laboratories.

311. Instrumental Analysis. Introduction to principles and major applications of modern instrumental techniques, including electrochemical, spectrometric and chromatographic methods, as applied to materials assay, quantitative spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, and investigation of properties of materials and reactions. Laboratory component stresses operation of key instruments to obtain data typical of each. Prerequisites: Chemistry 222 and 331. Fall. Two 70-minute periods, two 3-hour laboratories.

313. Physical Organic Chemistry. Physical methods for studying organic structures and reactions. Topics include Hückel molecular orbital theory; applications of the concept of conservation of orbital symmetry to cycloaddition, electrocyclic reactions, and sigmatropic rearrangements; kinetic isotope effects; linear free-energy relationships; trapping of reaction intermediates. Readings taken directly from chemical literature. Prerequisites: Chemistry 212 and 332. Fall. Three 50-minute periods, one 50-minute problem session.
D. Libby

314. Bioorganic Chemistry. Biochemistry of enzymes, coenzymes, and metabolic pathways from an organic chemist's point of view. Focus on molecular mechanisms of enzyme action and various ways enzymes are studied. Topics include relationships between protein structure and function, types of catalysis utilized by enzymes, detailed mechanisms of reaction steps of selected metabolic pathways including reactions involving coenzymes such as thiamine pyrophosphate (vitamin B1) and pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) and methods used in study of enzyme reactions including kinetics, identification of reaction intermediates, and chemical models for enzymatic reactions. Some examples will be taken from ongoing departmental research. Readings: text and standard biochemical reference books, as well as original biochemical literature. Prerequisite: Chemistry 212 or permission of instructor. Spring. Three 50-minute periods, one 50-minute problem session.
D. Libby

315. Synthetic Organic Chemistry. Introduction to retrosynthetic approach for designing syntheses of organic molecules and systematic investigation of synthetic use of organic reactions encountered in Chemistry 211-212. Course focus is on synthetic utility of various organic reactions and logic of synthetic design. Prerequisite: Chemistry 212 or permission of instructor. Fall. Three 50-minute periods, one 50-minute problem session.
D. Libby

327. Biochemistry I. (Also Biology 327) Focus on the structural features of the four major classes of biomolecules and the basic functions of these molecules in cells. Coverage of the fundamentals of information flow in biological systems, enzyme kinetics and catalytic mechanisms will set the stage for Biology/Chemistry 328 (Biochemistry II). Students will also be introduced to many of the techniques used in biochemistry laboratories and begin to learn how to investigate biochemical problems. Prerequisites: Biology 112 or 119 and Chemistry 212 or permission of instructor. Fall. Three 50-minute lectures, one 50-minute problem session, and one 3-hour laboratory.
Sh. Dunham

328. Biochemistry II. (Also Biology 328). Builds upon the biochemical foundations covered in Biology/Chemistry 327. Areas include metabolic pathways, strategies and regulation, membrane transport, enzyme catalysis and regulation, bioenergetics, signal transduction pathways, and the biochemistry of disease. Students will be exposed to additional laboratory techniques, experimental design, bioinformatics, and grant proposal writing. Analysis of primary literature is an integral component of the course. Prerequisite: Biology/Chemistry 327 or permission of instructor. Spring. Three 50-minute lectures and one 3-hour laboratory.

331-332. Physical Chemistry. States of matter, chemical thermodynamics, theory of solutions, chemical equilibria, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics, elementary quantum theory. Problems and laboratory reinforce theoretical discussion. Prerequisites: Chemistry 220.2 or 222, Mathematics 171, and Physics 112. Three 50-minute periods, one 50-minute problem session, one 3-hour laboratory.

333. Advanced Physical Chemistry. Application of quantum mechanics to atomic and molecular structure, group theory, and atomic, molecular, and laser spectroscopy. Prerequisite: Chemistry 332. Fall. Three 50-minute periods and one 50-minute problem session.

341. Inorganic Chemistry. Periodic-table relationships, bonding theories, coordination compounds, acid/base theories, organometallic compounds. Laboratory stresses synthesis and characterization of inorganic compounds. Prerequisite: Chemistry 331 or permission of instructor. Spring. Two 70-minute periods, one 50-minute problem session, and one 3-hour laboratory.

370.2. Senior Seminar in Chemistry. Advanced topics in chemistry. Designed to provide senior-level students with the opportunity to deal with projects that bring together concepts from different areas of chemistry. Emphasis on development of ability for independent analysis of chemical problems. Includes lectures by visiting speakers on current chemical research, as well as literature research, written reports, and oral presentations on a chemical topic chosen by student in consultation with a faculty advisor. In addition, students will critique presentations by visiting scientists and other students. Prerequisite: Senior status or permission of department chair. Spring. One 100-minute period.

375.2. Senior Seminar in Biochemistry. (Also Biology 375.2) Advanced topics in biochemistry, designed to provide senior-level students with an opportunity to explore projects that illustrate how concepts from biology and chemistry relate to the study of biochemistry. Emphasis on development of ability for independent analysis of biochemical problems. Includes lectures by visiting speakers on current research. Students also will complete literature research, submit written reports, and make oral presentations on a biochemical topic chosen in consultation with faculty advisor. Prerequisite: Biology/Chemistry 328 or permission of instructor. Spring. One 100-minute period. Writing-intensive.
St. Dunham

190-199, 290-299, 390-399. Special Topics.

286, 381-384. Independent Study.

288, 386-388. Intership.

400-401. Honors.