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Interdisciplinary Programs

Learning in Common Courses

LinC 101. First-Year Writing Seminar. The First-Year Seminar (FYS) program at Moravian College builds and sustains a vibrant campus-based educational community committed to the success of first-year college students. FYS courses engage students in critical and creative reading and writing, thinking and speaking, through topics drawn from the instructors’ disciplines. The writing seminars allow students to work closely with faculty on engaging topics while they practice the processes necessary to academic success and learn values that sustain a community of learners. Seminars will refine the students’ skills in critical and creative reading and thinking, discussion, and writing. Sample themes for the FYS include Ghandi and non-violence; the ethics of life and death; the happiness investment; the biology of love and sex; transitions from youth; what’s “news”; and poverty in a global context. (F1)

Writing 100. Writing as a communication process central to learning and life. Helps students write in varied styles for varied audiences, use research materials and cite them appropriately, and use technology as a tool for research and writing. Students will work collaboratively in workshop settings and will practice both oral and written communication. Each section will have its own subject-area focus. (F1)

Interdisciplinary Courses

110. World Geography and Global Issues. Relationships between place and culture, politics, economics, and society. How various regions respond to problems such as poverty, war, and health care, and how their responses affect the global community. Topics change at the discretion of the instructor. Two 70-minute periods. (M5)
Keim, West

165. Life Walk of Justice:  Introduction to Peace and Justice Studies.  (Also Religion 165, Sociology 165.)  In this course students will be encouraged to identify and analyze (in)justice in our own lives, communities and world.  In addition to course readings, we will use the contemplative practices of memoir and walking as resources for critical thinking.  A majority of the course will involve students developing responses to (in)justice through various projects that reflect students’ own passion and design, including academic, artistic, political, social, service-oriented, and personal responses.  Prerequisites:  First-Year students and sophomores only; juniors and seniors with permission of the instructor. (M3) 
Denton-Borhaug, Jasper

200. Witches and Demons in German History and Culture. (Also German 200) Examines a wide variety of texts and other media to explore the idea and representation of the strange and "deviant" in German literature and culture from early modern Europe to the present. Focus on the concept of the witch, witch-hunts, the Faust legend, and gender issues. Supplemented by audio-visual materials from art history, film, and popular culture. Taught in English. (M2)

205. Spaces for Living: Design in Mind. (Also Psychology 205) We live amidst architecture—buildings, houses, interiors, and landscapes—but we rarely take the time to think about the spaces where we live. Why have our homes, communities, cities, and public spaces evolved as they have? Are some spaces more pleasing to the eye and the mind than others? How do our physical spaces affect our mental life? To explore these questions, we will read about domestic life (the idea of "home"), architecture, and design. May Term. (M6)

210. Modern Urbanization: Destruction and Restoration of Cities around the World. Modern urbanization has threatened the nature of our cities for years. Unless efforts are made to protect them, cities around the world will lose their historical, cultural, and social specificities, and probably look alike by mid-century. By focusing primarily on seven of the world's greatest cities (Bangkok, Beijing, Berlin, Cairo, Kyoto, Paris, and Venice), we examine how they address (or fail to address) those challenging issues. (M5)

212. Artists as Activists. (Also Art 212). How do artists, writers and graphic designers raise ethical questions and advocate social change? Global examples of visual culture will include propaganda, graphic design, film, and theater. Relationships between art, images, mass media, and acts of conscience will be evaluated using ethical/philosophical frameworks and formal and contextual analysis. Discussion will include historical, social, and political context of art, its method of production and distribution, and its inherent privileges or risks. (U2) Prerequisites: junior or senior standing.

213. The Impact of Technology on Diet and Disease. Historically, technology has had an enormous impact on diet and disease. Beginning with the domestication of crops and animals, the course will trace changes in the diet and human social systems resulting from advances in agriculture and food distribution. Topics include the 18th-century agricultural and industrial revolutions and the "green revolution" of the 1950s; hormones, antibiotics, genetically engineered crops; pandemics such as the Black Death of the 14th century, Spanish influenza in 1918, and AIDS and other emerging diseases. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U1)
Binford, Husic

214. Immigration, Exile and Internal Displacement in Latin American and Latino Literature. (Also Foreign Language 214) Immigration, exile and internal displacement are phenomena seen across the world, and ones that are frequent topics of discussion. This course will examine such issues among the diverse Latin American cultures through the lens of fiction. These texts and films deal directly with moments of social transformation, power differences, and cultural (mis)understanding. Studying how these works will help students better understand the timely issues of displacement, as well as how these issues are perceived and represented. Course conducted in English. (M5) Prerequisite: Writing 100 or LinC 101.

215. Living in a Digital Society. This course considers how society has changed as a result of increased accessibility to information through computer technology. Possible topics include dealing with “information overload” through information literacy, Internet regulation in a global society, property-rights issues related to file-sharing programs, the limits of privacy in an online setting, and issues related to the regulation of spam. (U1) Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. 

216. Intersection of Culture and Healthcare. In this course the student will develop an understanding of health, illness, and the meanings of these concepts for members of non-western socio-cultural populations. Topics include culturally bound practices; the impact on healthcare practices and decision-making; structures that promote access to healthcare and structures that impede access. The concept of delivering culturally competent care will be examined and strategies for promoting competence will be explored. (M5)                                                            

217. From Ape to Madonna: The Evolution of Humankind. Addresses the historical and comparative evolution of our species. Using the approaches of evolutionary biology, physical anthropology, and archaeology, this course traces human physical evolution and cultural development from its earliest beginning, more than five million years ago, to about 15,000 years ago, just before the beginnings of plant and animal domestication and the rise of complex societies. Special attention paid to the impact that evolutionary ideas have had on social, political, and educational issues in American life. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U1)

222. African Art. (Also Art 222) Students will develop an aesthetic and cultural overview of African art, from prehistory to the present day. Sculpture is the primary medium studied in the course, but textiles, painting, artisanal works and architecture are also included. Students will consider how religion and cultural influences affect the development of regional and national styles. The influence of the African diaspora on art in Europe, Latin America, and the United States will be considered. Students will acquire the critical vocabulary required to analyze and interpret African art, and apply it in both discussion and writing. (M5)

220. The Holocaust. (Also History 220) Discusses the persecution and mass killing of European Jews by Nazi Germany. Describes anti-Semitism in historical context and explores the complexities of ultimate moral choices by asking how a cultured civilization produced mass killers and an educated class went unprotesting to its extermination. Students will explore the experience of those who were sent to the camps, how they constructed a kind of everyday life, and how gender influenced their experience. Finally, we study how and why the world outside Germany—foreign governments, intellectuals, religious and humanitarian groups—reacted to or failed to confront the Holocaust. (U2)

228. Telling and Selling Your Brand: The Art of the Story. (Also Management 228) The use of mythology, archetypes, and storytelling to create a cohesive and compelling identity for an organization. Focus on how legendary organizations have built trust and created iconic brands by understanding and applying these principles. The use of symbolism (visual and mental) and metaphor to create a theme that is enduring, powerful, and integrated throughout the organization. Ways that organizations and people can develop deep and lasting relationships with their customers and other stakeholders through the understanding and application of these storytelling techniques. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or higher.

232. Ethical Issues in Reproductive Biotechnology. (Also Women's Studies 232) Ethical and biological considerations for the individual, family, and society regarding recent technical procedures and diagnostic methods in reproductive biology. Topics include prenatal genetic diagnosis and treatment, assisted reproductive technologies, premature birth and associated medical concerns and treatments, birth-control methods, sex-selection technologies, and pregnancy- and birth-related technologies. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U1)

250. Moral Marketing. (Also Management 250) How the ideas of tzedek ("justice") and charity ("love") apply to marketing to the world's poorest people (those living on less than $2 a day). Examination of three different perspectives of social justice: Jewish, Christian, and American secular traditions. Each of these three perspectives has unique traditions regarding the role of the individual and the community, and the obligation towards helping those less fortunate. Discussion of differences between morality and ethics based on these three perspectives, as well as approaches to social justice as an obligation, an act of love, or a practical solution. Needs of the poor in emerging nations and how products could be created and distributed in these emerging nations in accordance with these different ethical and moral perspectives. (U2) Prerequisite: junior or senior standing.         

251. Human Sexuality. (Also Sociology 251) The physical, psychological, relational, and socio-cultural aspects of sexuality influence humans from before birth through death. This course will increase students' understandings of lifespan human sexuality; engage them in critical thinking about sexuality in the context of culture; help them identify and critique their sexual values, attitudes and morals; and enable students to make relational and sexual decisions in keeping with their values. (U2) Davis

256. Social Controversies. (Also Sociology 256) Ethical concerns associated with traditional and contemporary social issues. Assessment of moral arguments based upon individual beliefs as well as those promoted by traditional philosophy. Encourages exploration of students' own philosophies in the context of everyday life. Prerequisite: Sociology 115; junior or senior standing. (U2)

261. Prophets of Doom and Gloom? Science Fiction, Science Fact, and the Contemporary World. (Also English 261) Creators of science fiction often present dire warnings about the world to come in which science has subverted human values. By studying important developments in science and technology and significant works of science fiction, we can comprehend the nature of these warnings and attempt to formulate a civilized response to the dehumanizing forces afflicting the contemporary world. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U1)

262. Literature and the Way We Live. (Also English 262) This course considers such moral issues as the environment; identity, duties to kin; love, marriage and sex; racism and sexism; as posed within a variety of world literature that includes short stories, novels, poetry, and drama, ranging from the era of Sophocles' Antigone to the present. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U2)

301. The Social Impact of Genetic Information. A course designed for students to explore issues related to the applications of genetic sequencing. Topics include medical, legal, and ethical implications of decisions about the use of genetic information on themselves and on society. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. F4 course recommended. (U1)

310. "Doing Good" at Work. (Also Management 310) "Doing good" is philanthropy, ethical codes of conduct, voluntarism, social responsibility, and environmental stewardship. Not only is "doing good" at work the morally correct thing to do for the individual employee, but the more individuals in the organization who "do good," the more likely the organization will succeed on economic, social, and mission-related levels and goals. Students will learn about the philosophy, history and practice of "doing good" at work, and integrate what they have learned and what they believe to develop their own model for "doing good" that they can work and live with. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U2)

320.2. Writing in Science Education. Topical writing for various audiences in science education, including students, parents, colleagues, administrators, editors of professional journals, and review committees of funding agencies. Topics involve contemporary issues in science and/or science education. For general science teacher education students in the elementary and secondary programs only. Writing-intensive. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing.

325. Evolution, Culture, and the Origins of Behavior. Evolutionary theory and cultural accounts explaining the origins of human behavior are gaining in popularity. Evolution refers to biological and genetic processes, including inherited traits. Culture entails complex external social forces that affect societies and are often perpetuated by them. Does biology dominate culture? Does culture override biology? Or does the interaction between the two create behavior? We will critically examine various explanations of human behavior. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U1) Dunn

350. Media Technology and Society. (Also Sociology 350) Technological development and implications of mass-media forms. Students will analyze mass media as a social force that shapes personal and collective ideas and behaviors in the modern world. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U1)

358. Segregation in America: The Legacy of Jim Crow. (Also Sociology 358) A more grounded approach for tracing and interpreting the wide reach of legalized and enforced segregation in American life focusing primarily on the post-bellum period of the 19th century through the civil rights struggles of the 1960s and 1970s. Looks past many of the more commonly understood (and misinterpreted) elements of the so-called Jim Crow edifice by looking at all regions of the country during this period in a more comparative frame. Examines the social, historical, economic, and political forces that fueled the construction of segregation then while attempting to make sense of discussions relative to race, class, and power in America today. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U2)

372. Developmental Implications of Medical Technologies. (Also Psychology 372) Explores implications of recent medical advances. Topics to be explored include: assisted reproductive technologies, genetic testing, premature and low-birth-weight infants, performance-enhancing drugs, sex selection, and euthanasia. Students will be provided with an overview of the medical technologies in question and will explore ways in which individuals, families, and society are socially, emotionally, morally, legally, and economically affected by these advances. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U1)

373. Contemporary Work-Life Challenges. (Also Psychology 373) This course will explore the emerging theories and controversial issues regarding the relationship between work, family, and other life roles. Both the employee and employer perspective will be discussed within an organizational context, and from various moral perspectives. Students will also consider and react to the psychological adjustment and decision-making issues posed by the impact of work on one's family and life roles, and vice versa. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U2)

380. Peace and Justice-Making Praxis.  Students develop a “hands on” learning experience in the community with an emphasis on justice and peace-building that suits the particular design of their educational direction in the minor.  Faculty mentors guide students’ choices of additional study materials, participation in the “Vocational Reflection Circle” and additional memoir chapters.   

Africana Studies

Coordinator: Joel Nathan Rosen

The Africana studies minor is an interdisciplinary and consortial program which provides students an opportunity to explore the experiences of the peoples of sub-Saharan Africa and the African diaspora. The starting point is black Africa from ancient times until the present and extends to the global experiences of peoples of black African descent. This program could be of interest to students inclined toward careers in multidisciplinary education, social work, law, international affairs, business, diplomacy, non-governmental organizations, urban development, and social policy, among others.

The Africana studies minor at Moravian consists of five course units focusing on the black experience including Africana Studies 110 and at least two upper level courses, one of which must be at the 300 level. Qualified students are encouraged to enroll in an Independent Study for one of the four elective courses.

Moravian College offers Africana Studies 110 and electives, including the following courses: English 105 and 240, Foreign Language 116, Spanish 248 and 358, History 127 and 128, Interdisciplinary Studies 160, 260, and 358, Music 113 and 115, and Sociology 258, 266, 357, and 358. Africana courses, including special topics courses, will be marked as Africana studies courses at each registration period.
In addition, each term the Africana Studies Consortium of the Lehigh Valley Association of Independent Colleges (LVAIC) will publish a list of Africana studies courses offered at nearby LVAIC institutions so that students can cross-register for a wide variety of courses. This list will be available from the registrar and the Africana studies coordinator. Each institution offers the basic Introduction to Africana Studies course. Other courses are offered regularly at other LVAIC institutions.

110. Introduction to Africana Studies. (Also Sociology 110) This course explores the significance of Africa and its global descendants through an interdisciplinary approach. The critical methodologies of the humanities and social sciences will be used to consider some of the questions provoked by African and African diasporan experiences. For example, is an African diaspora an objective reality or has it existed solely in response to American and European notions of racial difference? What have been the characteristics encompassed by that reality or those notions of race? Course materials will allow students to survey the lasting contributions of Africans and their descendants to the development of various world civilizations.

190-199, 290-299, 390-399. Special Topics. An investigation of selected interdisciplinary topics in Africana studies. Prerequisite: Africana Studies 110 or permission of the instructor. Staff

286, 381-384. Independent Study. Individual study of an Africana studies topic in areas where the student has demonstrated the interest and ability needed for independent work. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor and program coordinator. Staff

288, 386-388. Internship.

400-401. Honors.

International Studies

Advisor: Jean-Pierre Lalande

The international studies minor is an interdisciplinary program designed to advance appreciation and understanding of the diversity of the world through an emphasis on the humanities and social sciences. The program seeks to generate an appreciation for the interconnected nature of our world, to increase awareness and interest in world cultures and issues, to encourage international study and travel, and to offer students an opportunity to add a global perspective to their major area of study. To achieve these goals, the minor in international studies consists of five course units and a significant experience abroad.

The study-abroad experience may be completed in one of the following ways:

  • One fall or spring term abroad, in which case some of the coursework taken abroad also may count toward the international studies minor, or
  • One four- to six-week international program during the summer, or
  • Two international travel courses such as those offered at Moravian College during May Term.

In the second and third options, some credits earned during the travel experience may count toward the international studies minor. Consult with the program advisor before traveling.

The minor requires Political Science 115. (Political science majors pursuing a minor in international studies must substitute Interdisciplinary 110.) Two course units in the humanities and two additional course units in the social sciences must be taken to complete the minor. No more than two courses may be taken in a single department, and students must complete at least two course units at the 200 level or higher. Courses currently approved as part of the international studies minor include but are not limited to:

   Art 113 Global Perspectives in Art History to the Renaissance
   Biology 209 Humankind and the Global Ecosystem
   Economics 236* International Economics
   English 240 Post-Colonial Literature
   French 220 Modern France and Its Cultural Heritage
   German 220 Modern Germany and Its Cultural Heritage
   History 121 Arabic-Islamic Civilization
   History 126 African Civilizations
   History 128 19th- and 20th-Century Latin America
   History 218 Europe in the 20th Century
   History 255 The United States and Latin America: History of Their Relations
   Interdisciplinary 110 World Geography and Global Issues
   Interdisciplinary 160 Africa through the Eyes of Women
   Interdisciplinary 214 Immigration, Exile and Internal Displacement in Latin American and Latino Literature
   Interdisciplinary 260 Black and White in Africa
   Management 333 International Issues in Management
   Music 113 Introduction to Non-Western Music
   Music 175.2 Musics of the World
   Political Science 125 Introduction to Comparative Politics
   Political Science 235 Contemporary European Politics
   Political Science 245 Topics in Politics of the Third World
   Political Science 327 Topics in Comparative Politics
   Political Science 347 Topics in Comparative Politics
   Political Science 348 Topics in Chinese Art, Culture, and Politics
   Religion 122 Eastern Religious Traditions
   Religion 123 Religions of India
   Religion 124 Religious Thought of China and Japan
   Sociology 113 Cultural Anthropology
   Sociology 268 Communities and Conflict in India
   Spanish 246 Culture and Civilization of Spain
   Spanish 248 Latin American Contemporary Culture
* Economics 152 is a prerequisite; students completing both Economics 152 and 236 may count both courses toward the international studies minor.

Medieval Studies

Coordinator: John Black

The medieval studies minor is an interdisciplinary program that examines the art, history, literature, music, and philosophy of the middle ages. The program seeks to increase students' knowledge of the middle ages and appreciation for the ways in which medievalists draw on interdisciplinary methodologies and sources. Courses taken as part of study abroad may work well within this minor.

The requirements for the medieval studies minor consist of five course units, including History 140, English 350 or 355, Medieval Studies 370, and two other courses from the list below. Students must take courses in at least three disciplines; in other words, at least one of the two elective courses must come from a discipline outside of English or history. Medieval Studies 370 is the capstone course for the minor. As for all independent study courses, students must have a QPA of at least 2.70 to enroll. The minor requirements cannot be fulfilled without successful completion of the capstone course.

   Art 113 Global Perspectives in Art History to the Renaissance
   English 350* Chaucer
   English 355* Literature and Culture of Medieval Britain
   History 141 England through the Reign of Elizabeth
   History 237 Popular Culture in Medieval and Early Modern Europe
   History 238 Women in Europe, 500-1700
   Music 281 Western Music to 1750
   Philosophy 243 Medieval Philosophy
* Whichever is not selected as the required course above.

190-99, 290-99, 390-99. Special Topics. Selected interdisciplinary topics in medieval studies. Prerequisites: History 140, English 350 or 355, and permission of instructor and program coordinator.

370. Capstone in Medieval Studies. Intensive independent study and research in an area of medieval scholarship in which the student has demonstrated sufficient interest and ability. Content varies. The capstone project must draw explicitly on methodologies of more than one discipline. Prerequisites: History 140, English 350 or 355, QPA of 2.70 or above, satisfactory completion of a writing-intensive course, and permission of instructor and program coordinator.

286, 381-384. Independent Study.

400-401. Honors.

Peace and Justice Studies

Advisors:  Dr. Kelly Denton-Borhaug and Dr. Daniel Jasper

The Minor in Religion, Peace and Justice is a multidisciplinary program whose objective is to encourage students to think critically and develop strategic responses that will promote positive transformation with regard to:

  • the nature and causes of violence and conflict;
  • racism, gender bias, inequity, degradation of the natural world, and other manifestations of human violence;
  • the nature of religious understandings, values and practices as contributing to conflict and violence and as a resource for  just peace-building;
  • the destructive power of war and militarism;
  • the sources, structures and dynamics of injustice and justice-making, and the values, experiences and bases of peace and justice; and
  • possibilities and strategies to encourage personal and collective transformation for the public good and individual human flourishing.

The minor consists of five course units:  Interdisciplinary 165 and 380, plus two courses from the first group listed below (Courses in Religion, Peace, and Justice) and one course from the second group (Structures and Ideas).  Ideally, Interdisciplinary 165 is taken before other courses in the minor.  No more than one course from the first group taken prior to Interdisciplinary 165 may count toward the minor. 

Courses in Religion, Peace, and Justice (2 courses required)
Students will choose two from among the following courses in the department of religion that focus on the nexus of religion, peace and justice.  Additional courses may be added to this list as they become available according to faculty interest and development:

   Philosophy 250 Environmental Philosophy and Religion
   Religion 210 Christian Ethics, War and Just Peacemaking
   Religion 240 Jewish and Christian Feminism
   Religion 245 Religion and Politics
   Religion 246 War and Peace in the Biblical World
   Religion 255 Liberation Theology with Travel Seminar
   Religion 370 The Problem of Evil
   Sociology 268 Nation, Religion and Region in India

Structures and Ideas (1 course required)
Students choose one course in the applied analysis of peace and justice issues in specific social, political, economic, and cultural systems; and/or on how peace and justice are theorized. These courses may be changed and added to in accordance with faculty interest in this program.

   Interdisciplinary 220
The Holocaust 
   Interdisciplinary 110  World Geography and Global Issues
   Women’s Studies 265
Feminist Philosophy
   Political Science 115 International Politics
   Political 120 Introduction to Political Thinking
   Political Science 210 US Workers in the New Globalized Economy 
   Political Science/
   Women’s Studies 257
Politics of Women’s Rights in Asia 
   Political Science/
   Women’s Studies 260
Critical Gender Studies
   Sociology 258 Structured Inequalities
   Interdisciplinary 358
Segregation in America: The Legacy of Jim Crow

It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that he or she meets all course prerequisites before selecting courses from the above lists to complete the minor.

Women's Studies

Coordinator: Angela Fraleigh

The women's studies minor is an interdisciplinary program focused on the social, psychological, economic, artistic, historical, religious, and political breadth of women's experiences. Attention will be given to the diversity of women's lives and the intricate connections between race, class, sexual preference, and gender in culture and society.

The women's studies minor consists of five course units, including Women's Studies 101 and four electives. At least three of these four electives must come from the list of women's studies courses below. Students may, if they choose, take one of their four electives from the list of gender-related courses below. As with other minors, at least three courses must be taken at the 200 or 300 level.

   German 341 Women in German Literature and Culture
   History 238 Women in Europe 500-1700
   History 239 Victorian Ladies and Other Women: England and America 1837-1914
   Interdisciplinary 160 Africa through the Eyes of Women
   Music 188 Women and Music
   Philosophy 265 Feminist Philosophy
   Political Science 257 Politics of Women's Rights in East Asia
   Psychology 345 Psychology of Women
   Religion 136 Seeing and Believing: Women, Religion, and Film
   Religion 240 Jewish and Christian Feminism
   Women's Studies 222 Women and Health
   Women's Studies 190-
      199, 290-299, 390-399
Special Topics
   Women's Studies 286,
Independent Study
   Women's Studies 288,
   Women's Studies 400-
Gender-related courses (no more than one can count toward the minor)
   Interdisciplinary 232 Ethical Issues in Reproductive Technology
   Political Science 260 Critical Gender Studies
   Sociology 310 The Family and the Law
   Sociology 355 Sociology of Gender
Other women's studies courses may be counted toward the minor with the approval of the women's studies coordinator.

Students are encouraged to enroll in an Independent Study for one of the four electives. Students may also cross-register for women's studies courses at other LVAIC institutions.

101. Introduction to Women's Studies. Introduction to issues, topics, and methodologies of women's studies in a global context. Examines the lives of women around the globe in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, with particular attention to the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the West, focusing on gender inequality, feminist ethics, gender as a category of analysis, and social construction of gender. (M5)

136. Seeing and Believing: Women, Religion, and Film. (Also Religion 136) Students explore how films appropriate religion in the service of the cultural production of images of women and women's lives; and investigate the ways the creation and viewing of film might share similarities with the construction and practice of religion. (M3)

188. Women and Music. (Also Music 188) Women composers and performers from various countries, historical eras, and musical genres. Prior musical knowledge helpful but not required. Fall. Two 70-minute periods. (M6)

222. Women and Health. Introduction to feminist analysis of women's health issues. Historical trends in health and health care in relation to changing patterns in social position and roles of women. Ways in which lay, medical, and research assumptions about women have developed and influenced existing literature about women's health and structure of health services as they relate to women's health-care needs. Topics include reproductive health, mental health, chronic illnesses, lesbian health issues, women and aging, nutrition, occupational health hazards, sexuality, race and class health issues, eating disorders, and the women's health movement.

232. Ethical Issues in Reproductive Biotechnology. (Also Interdisciplinary 232) Ethical and biological considerations for the individual, family, and society regarding recent technical procedures and diagnostic methods in reproductive biology. Topics include prenatal genetic diagnosis and treatment, assisted reproductive technologies, premature birth and associated medical concerns and treatments, birth-control methods, sex-selection technologies, and pregnancy- and birth-related technologies. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing. (U1)

240. Jewish and Christian Feminism. (Also Women's Studies 240) Introduction to theological feminist theory, comparing and contrasting Jewish and Christian women theologians/ethicists on themes such as images of the divine, sacred text, halakhah, community, sexuality, ritual, etc. In addition, students will learn from the lives of women in our own community. (U2)

257. Politics of Women's Rights in East Asia. (Also Political Science 257) Course explores the history and politics of women's rights in China, Japan, and Korea through readings, discussions, writing, interviews, videos, and debates. Focus will be on cultural and gender differences and the politics concerning women that emerge from the different written and visual sources covered. Writing-intensive. (M5)

260. Critical Gender Studies. (Also Political Science 260) This advanced-level political theory course introduces students to scholarly texts, activist writings, and historical documents pertinent to feminist theory and masculinity studies. Selected readings also address multiculturalism, race, class, sexuality, religion, and ethnicity. Theories studied will vary by semester. This class exposes students to diverse approaches to the politics of sex and gender. Prerequisite: Political Science 120 or permission of the instructor.

265. Feminist Philosophy. (Also Philosophy 265) Feminist writings on questions such as: How do the legacies of gender inequality persist today? What would gender justice look like? Is there such a thing as a gender-neutral point of view? How do gender, race, class, and sexuality relate? Prerequisite: one prior course in philosophy or women's studies, or permission of instructor. Fall, alternate years. (U2)

345. Psychology of Women. (Also Psychology 345) Research on gender differences and female gender development from various perspectives. Critical analysis of assumptions about human nature and science embedded in our approach to these issues. Interdisciplinary approach, with attention to biological, cognitive, behavioral, and social factors that influence emergence of gender. Topics include gender-role development, achievement and motivation, health issues, sexuality, adjustment, victimization, and minority-group issues. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing.

355. Sociology of Gender. (Also Sociology 355) Relationships between biologically defined sex and culturally defined gender; analysis of expectations and limitations upon males and females in traditional and contemporary societies. Significant focus on inequality in social institutions, including family, workplace, and legal system, that reflect differences in sex and sexual orientation. Prerequisite: Sociology 258 or Women's Studies 101. Writing-intensive.

190-199, 290-299, 390-399. Special Topics. Selected interdisciplinary topics in women's studies. Prerequisite: Women's Studies 101 or permission of instructor.

286, 381-384. Independent Study. Intensive study in an area in which the student has demonstrated the interest and ability needed for independent work. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and program coordinator.

288, 386-388. Internship.

400-401. Honors.