LESSON PLAN FORMAT:
Teacher: Mr. Schantz
Student Teacher: Heather McGarvie
Title: "Paper Making: Experimenting with Texture and making a
Time: Five Consecutive Lessons/45 minute periods
Date: January 24th, 2005
STANDARDS ADDRESSED / ASSESSED:
Curriculum Links: Art, Art history
Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities:
9.1.5 G. Identify the function and benefits of rehearsal
and practice sessions.
9.2 Historical and Cultural Contexts
9.2.5 E. Analyze how historical events and cultural
impact has formed techniques and purposes of works in the
Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking &
1.1.5 Acquire a reading vocabulary by correctly
identifying and using words.
Papermaking is a delicate art form. A paper maker is
a designer, illustrator and scripter who tell his or her stories
through the various applications of soft and textured fibers.
This lesson will demand patience, craftsmanship and pure
individuality. I will teach about the Eastern and Western
methods of Papermaking, meaningful historical facts and the
importance of recycling; there exists an ecological importance
and a purpose for making paper. Students will learn about
texture and fibers and how these art aspects relate to
papermaking. I will teach my students how paper is a functional
and unique form. Students will learn how they can layer their
pulps, in order to create durability. Students, at each table,
will be assigned one color of construction paper (out of 6), and
they will rip and mix their paper pieces, in blenders, in order
to create pulp. Students will learn how to drawing some sort of
geometric design onto a Styrofoam bowl. I will teach my students
how to apply their colorful pulps onto the drawn shapes
accordingly; both the pulps and bowls will be stored on shelves
at room temperature.
Students have already been taught how to operate art
materials (crayons, colored pencils, markers, pencils, scissors,
glue, tape, stapling, etc.). They should be aware of the duties
that are expected of them during clean-up time. Students must
cooperate during all classroom activities.
Students will be seated into six ‘table groups’
around the classroom, and students with IEP’s or any other
learning difficulty will be placed with an appropriate group
that will help and encourage them throughout the class period.
Students are expected to encourage sharing materials and
supplies, paying attention and talking/acting polite to each
I will ask my students, "What feeling do certain
textures give you? Think of how you will create design and
texture within your handmade paper bowl; you will have the
choice to decide upon what colors you will apply onto your bowl.
The red, orange and yellow tables are to be pushed together
for large group beforehand. Upon their arrival, students are to
sit in their regular seats and will be told where to move to. I
will demonstrate how paper making can be done in a simple
and clean way. First, I will show a visual presentation with a
hardcopy PowerPoint presentation (in color and laminated) that
will help my students learn what fiber is, where it comes from
and how/why it is used to make paper. I will talk about the
history of papermaking, and students will learn about the
following countries and how they made further developments with
this craft: China 105AD, Korea 600AD, Japan 770AD, France
1157AD, Italy 1268AD, Germany 1320AD, Holland and The United
States 1690AD. Next, I will discuss what pulp is and how it is
made from fiber. A plastic bag of Day lily pulp that I have
processed with the Hollander beater (students will learn about
this type of machine), will be passed around, as well. On the
blackboard, there will be a series of my own handmade papers,
including: Ginkgo leaf, banana leaf and denim/blue jeans. Some
of these papers have been painted on, as well. Samples of my
papers will be passed around to all of the students.
Questions and Answers:
Students will listen and watch quietly. I will be asking lots
of interesting and interactive questions throughout this lesson.
My questions will include: "Where do you think fiber comes from?
Have you ever heard of the word, pulp? Where have you seen it or
heard of it? Do you think paper can be made from plants and
food? What country do you think first invented papermaking?
I will show the students my two paper bowls. One of these
bowls is not durable; holes and thin areas of dried pulp show
signs of weakness. Students will learn that by layering their
final pulp design with another solid color of pulp will keep
their bowls strong and secure. These bowls will be passed around
the group. Next, I will demonstrate how to rip/tear, soak and
blend the construction paper; this mixture is called a slurry.
After the blending process, the slurry appears soup-like. After
the slurry is poured overtop a screen and into a container,
students will see that the soup-like pulp becomes oatmeal-like.
The pulp is now ready to make the bowl. I will inform the class
that they will be receiving a Styrofoam bowl—this will be used
as the mold for the shape of their paper bowl. I will
demonstrate how to draw a design onto the Styrofoam bowl—using
crayons, I will draw my design with the colors that my pulp will
be in those areas. I will use a plastic utensil, in order to
apply the pulp onto my Styrofoam bowl. My students will learn
that their designs will appear on the inside [of the paper bowl]
once it is covered with the final layer of pulp and removed from
the Styrofoam bowl.
I will select a student to carry my screen and water tray to
the sink. The blender will be unplugged, and certain students
will be chosen for the garage sale. I will review their
bonus/minus points for that class period, and later, I will
update their points. Students will be selected to line up in
their line order and they will be dismissed. I will construct a
worksheet with four circles on it; for Day 2, students will
sketch four design ideas onto this worksheet before they begin
to draw their designs onto the Styrofoam bowls.
I will discuss how to make preliminary sketches. Students
will learn the benefits of this activity—practice, practice,
practice! Students will see how this project demands many step
by step procedures. I will demonstrate, on a larger version of
their worksheet, how to draw out ideas for geometric designs.
After my demonstration, students will be given their worksheet,
and they will use pencils for their unique designs. After this
step, students will select their best design for their final
project. I will be walking around the room, checking to see that
each student understands the concept and instructions given.
Depending on how many students complete this task, I will hand
out Styrofoam bowls, and the students will label their names on
the inside and begin to draw their selected design onto their
bowl, using specific crayons that coordinate with their intended
Questions and Answers:
Students will be encouraged to help each other and work
constructively. A student should not have the same design as
another student next to him or her. If a student needs my help,
they are to raise their hand, and I will assist them as soon as
Each table will have a designated amount and color of
construction paper. Students will begin to rip/tear pieces of
their construction paper and put them into a container of
lukewarm water, in order to loosen the paper fibers. All torn
papers should be pushed to the middle of the table—all other
areas should be clean, clear and dry.
Styrofoam bowls MUST have names written on the inside and
these will be stacked and moved to the center of each table. I
will select two students from each table: One will take the
bowls to the back table and the other will take the torn papers,
in the watered containers, to a nearby cart for storage. I will
reward behaved tables with points and the garage sale selection
may take place, as well.
The construction paper is thick, and during the blending
process, it will be thinned out as water is added into the
blender. Detergent can be added as an additive for making paper,
as well. After the mixture, or slurry, is poured and drained, it
will be become thick and clumpy.
Three blender stations will exist, and students will blend
their torn and soaked paper pieces until they feel thick, almost
oatmeal-like. Afterwards, they will dump the colored paper pulp
into an empty basin over a large window screen, so that the
excess water can drain. All pulps will be left to drain for a
few minutes; it is better for the pulp to be watery than to be
extremely thick (more water can always be added).
All six pulp colors will need to be drained and stored into
empty Model Magic containers. After class, I will distribute
these pulps, equally, into six plastic table organizers so that
the students, at each table, will have all six pulps to choose
from while making their paper bowls. Students will begin to use
their pulps on Day 4.
I will review how to use the utensil and apply the pulp onto
their design, over the Styrofoam bowl. Students will need to pay
attention so that they understand how thick their applications
of pulp need to be. I will be using my fingers to help shape the
pulp into the correct design. Paper towels and sponges will be
available for the students, as well. Sponges will be used to
blot the pulp after each application and to wipe up water
Questions and Answers:
I will be asking the students questions that relate to the
correct ways of doing each step.
Students will begin to apply the pulps to their bowls. They
will start from the center of their bowl and push and pat the
pulps so that they attach to each other. Students will need to
remember to blot water with clean sponges.
I will collect the bowls into storage trays and students will
be expected to wipe and dry their tables for the next class. I
will select a student at each table to collect the pulp
organizers, and they will be stored by my desk, in the back of
the classroom. I will cover each bowl with a damp paper towel.
I will review the process of making a paper bowl, and a few
of the bowls-in-progress will be presented to the class.
Students should not be rushing to complete their bowl—I will go
Questions and Answers:
I will be constantly walking around the room, making sure
that each student is being careful with his or her bowl.
When the pulp design covers the entire bowl, a thin, solid
layer of [one color] pulp will be applied overtop; this will
keep the design secure while reinforcing the bowl’s shape.
All bowls will be stored in the back of the classroom and let
to dry. After they are dry, the Styrofoam bowl will be removed.
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT:
For a class of about 20 students, the following supplies will
be needed: Sink (s), sheets of colored construction paper,
plastic buckets/vats (6), blenders, screens, additives for
making paper (detergent), stretcher bars (frames [any size] some
with screen wire to scoop, pour and drain the paper pulp),
crayons (in order to color code the designs to coordinate with
the paper pulp that will be applied) and Styrofoam bowls (used
as molds), plastic spoons, and Zip lock bags.
IMPORTANT VOCABULARY: Absorb,
Additives, Consistency, Couching, Deckle, Fibers, Layering,
Mold, Plastic bin (Vat), Pulp, Recyclable art form,
Sheet-forming, Slurry and Texture.
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION:
I will see how the students’ decisions affect their overall
results. I will look and see if the student’s handmade paper
bowls were created with unique geometric designs. I will
evaluate the range of subject matter and see if the student
invested valuable time, concerning his/her paper making
processes. Students should experiment with at least three paper
pulps within their bowls. I will ask my students, "Was the idea
of paper making successful for you? Why or why not? What is
pleasing to the eye in each bowl?" These bowls should be very
personal and meaningful to each student.
Experience + Reflection=Growth!
Tuesday, February 1, 2005
Mr. Rivera’s class was extremely patient and respectful. This
class tends to be hard to manage, and many of the students have
IEP’s. Today’s introductory lesson was phenomenal! Each student
seemed interested with my visuals and many wanted to answer my
questions. I felt like I had reached each individual in some way
or another, and the students only showed signs of disappointment
when they realized that they would not be making pulp until next
If I had to teach this lesson the way I did today, over
again, I would! I read and presented my presentation slowly and
clearly and this was extremely helpful for each student.
What was interesting:
The students were surprised when I informed them how artists
can make paper from food and other plants, including wheat, rice
and cotton. China makes paper for clothing, including hats and
shoes. My students were able to see how paper can be sculpted,
like clay, and used for other materials. One student, in
particular, shared one of his own experiences with papermaking.
He had been on a field trip and had the opportunity to observe
an artist make his own paper. This student respectfully shared
his experience with the rest of his classmates, and this made my
lesson even more worthwhile.
Wednesday, February 2, 2005
Mr. Schantz left and returned from the art room throughout my
lesson and this helped me to work on my authority skills. I was
worried that a few of the students would take advantage of this
situation; however, the class kept their attention. At one
point, there was too much talking and I stood, walked over to
the blackboard and placed a -5 next to each table group. The
students noticed immediately and I continued with my lesson.
I did not feel as respected as I did with yesterday’s class.
This lesson was introduced in the same way; however, this class
seemed to have a handful of students who were fidgety, noisy and
unaware of how to handle samples/visuals that were being passed
around the large group. A few students failed to pass the sample
papers and bowls to the person next to him/her; instead, they
pushed it to one of their impatient friends. I mentioned to the
class how important it is to treat any piece of artwork with
respect; artists put lots of time into what they create. After
three warnings, I told one student to move and sit at the blue
table and the other to move and sit at the purple table. Near
the end of class, I asked these two boys if they would like to
see what I was demonstrating. They both nodded and so I allowed
them to come forward and sit on either side of my seat.
What was interesting:
After this class had lined up in their line order, I asked
Mr. Schantz if I could talk to the two students who I had told
to move during my lesson. They came with me to the back of the
room, and I told them the following: "Both of you like to joke
around and make the other students laugh—and they do—because
they like your sense of humor. They do! If you talk during my
teaching, then the others will do the same. I need you both to
pay attention and help me out during class. I will be giving you
jobs to do and you can help the other students. Does that sound
like a plan? Thank you." I will be watching for a change in
their behaviors during their lesson next week.