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Art Education
at Moravian College


 

Paper Making Lesson

Updated April 23, 2005


















































 

LESSON PLAN FORMAT:

Teacher: Mr. Schantz
Student Teacher: Heather McGarvie
Title: "Paper Making: Experimenting with Texture and making a Handmade Bowl"
Time: Five Consecutive Lessons/45 minute periods
Grade: Fifth
Date: January 24th, 2005

STANDARDS ADDRESSED / ASSESSED:

Curriculum Links: Art, Art history

Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities:

9.1.5 G. Identify the function and benefits of rehearsal and practice sessions.

9.2 Historical and Cultural Contexts

9.2.5 E. Analyze how historical events and cultural impact has formed techniques and purposes of works in the arts.

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking & Listening:

1.1.5 Acquire a reading vocabulary by correctly identifying and using words.

CONTENT:
Papermaking is a delicate art form. A paper maker is a designer, illustrator and scripter who tell his or her stories through the various applications of soft and textured fibers. This lesson will demand patience, craftsmanship and pure individuality. I will teach about the Eastern and Western methods of Papermaking, meaningful historical facts and the importance of recycling; there exists an ecological importance and a purpose for making paper. Students will learn about texture and fibers and how these art aspects relate to papermaking. I will teach my students how paper is a functional and unique form. Students will learn how they can layer their pulps, in order to create durability. Students, at each table, will be assigned one color of construction paper (out of 6), and they will rip and mix their paper pieces, in blenders, in order to create pulp. Students will learn how to drawing some sort of geometric design onto a Styrofoam bowl. I will teach my students how to apply their colorful pulps onto the drawn shapes accordingly; both the pulps and bowls will be stored on shelves at room temperature.

PREREQUISITES:
Students have already been taught how to operate art materials (crayons, colored pencils, markers, pencils, scissors, glue, tape, stapling, etc.). They should be aware of the duties that are expected of them during clean-up time. Students must cooperate during all classroom activities.

ACCOMMODATIONS:
Students will be seated into six ‘table groups’ around the classroom, and students with IEP’s or any other learning difficulty will be placed with an appropriate group that will help and encourage them throughout the class period. Students are expected to encourage sharing materials and supplies, paying attention and talking/acting polite to each other.

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVE:
I will ask my students, "What feeling do certain textures give you? Think of how you will create design and texture within your handmade paper bowl; you will have the choice to decide upon what colors you will apply onto your bowl.

*See Standards

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES:

Day 1

Intro:

The red, orange and yellow tables are to be pushed together for large group beforehand. Upon their arrival, students are to sit in their regular seats and will be told where to move to. I will demonstrate how paper making can be done in a simple and clean way. First, I will show a visual presentation with a hardcopy PowerPoint presentation (in color and laminated) that will help my students learn what fiber is, where it comes from and how/why it is used to make paper. I will talk about the history of papermaking, and students will learn about the following countries and how they made further developments with this craft: China 105AD, Korea 600AD, Japan 770AD, France 1157AD, Italy 1268AD, Germany 1320AD, Holland and The United States 1690AD. Next, I will discuss what pulp is and how it is made from fiber. A plastic bag of Day lily pulp that I have processed with the Hollander beater (students will learn about this type of machine), will be passed around, as well. On the blackboard, there will be a series of my own handmade papers, including: Ginkgo leaf, banana leaf and denim/blue jeans. Some of these papers have been painted on, as well. Samples of my papers will be passed around to all of the students.

Questions and Answers:

Students will listen and watch quietly. I will be asking lots of interesting and interactive questions throughout this lesson. My questions will include: "Where do you think fiber comes from? Have you ever heard of the word, pulp? Where have you seen it or heard of it? Do you think paper can be made from plants and food? What country do you think first invented papermaking?

Studio Time:

I will show the students my two paper bowls. One of these bowls is not durable; holes and thin areas of dried pulp show signs of weakness. Students will learn that by layering their final pulp design with another solid color of pulp will keep their bowls strong and secure. These bowls will be passed around the group. Next, I will demonstrate how to rip/tear, soak and blend the construction paper; this mixture is called a slurry. After the blending process, the slurry appears soup-like. After the slurry is poured overtop a screen and into a container, students will see that the soup-like pulp becomes oatmeal-like. The pulp is now ready to make the bowl. I will inform the class that they will be receiving a Styrofoam bowl—this will be used as the mold for the shape of their paper bowl. I will demonstrate how to draw a design onto the Styrofoam bowl—using crayons, I will draw my design with the colors that my pulp will be in those areas. I will use a plastic utensil, in order to apply the pulp onto my Styrofoam bowl. My students will learn that their designs will appear on the inside [of the paper bowl] once it is covered with the final layer of pulp and removed from the Styrofoam bowl.

Clean-up:

I will select a student to carry my screen and water tray to the sink. The blender will be unplugged, and certain students will be chosen for the garage sale. I will review their bonus/minus points for that class period, and later, I will update their points. Students will be selected to line up in their line order and they will be dismissed. I will construct a worksheet with four circles on it; for Day 2, students will sketch four design ideas onto this worksheet before they begin to draw their designs onto the Styrofoam bowls.

Day 2

Intro:

I will discuss how to make preliminary sketches. Students will learn the benefits of this activity—practice, practice, practice! Students will see how this project demands many step by step procedures. I will demonstrate, on a larger version of their worksheet, how to draw out ideas for geometric designs. After my demonstration, students will be given their worksheet, and they will use pencils for their unique designs. After this step, students will select their best design for their final project. I will be walking around the room, checking to see that each student understands the concept and instructions given. Depending on how many students complete this task, I will hand out Styrofoam bowls, and the students will label their names on the inside and begin to draw their selected design onto their bowl, using specific crayons that coordinate with their intended pulp colors.

Questions and Answers:

Students will be encouraged to help each other and work constructively. A student should not have the same design as another student next to him or her. If a student needs my help, they are to raise their hand, and I will assist them as soon as I can.

Studio Time:

Each table will have a designated amount and color of construction paper. Students will begin to rip/tear pieces of their construction paper and put them into a container of lukewarm water, in order to loosen the paper fibers. All torn papers should be pushed to the middle of the table—all other areas should be clean, clear and dry.

Clean-up:

Styrofoam bowls MUST have names written on the inside and these will be stacked and moved to the center of each table. I will select two students from each table: One will take the bowls to the back table and the other will take the torn papers, in the watered containers, to a nearby cart for storage. I will reward behaved tables with points and the garage sale selection may take place, as well.

Day 3

Intro:

The construction paper is thick, and during the blending process, it will be thinned out as water is added into the blender. Detergent can be added as an additive for making paper, as well. After the mixture, or slurry, is poured and drained, it will be become thick and clumpy.

Studio Time:

Three blender stations will exist, and students will blend their torn and soaked paper pieces until they feel thick, almost oatmeal-like. Afterwards, they will dump the colored paper pulp into an empty basin over a large window screen, so that the excess water can drain. All pulps will be left to drain for a few minutes; it is better for the pulp to be watery than to be extremely thick (more water can always be added).

Clean-up:

All six pulp colors will need to be drained and stored into empty Model Magic containers. After class, I will distribute these pulps, equally, into six plastic table organizers so that the students, at each table, will have all six pulps to choose from while making their paper bowls. Students will begin to use their pulps on Day 4.

Day 4

Intro:

I will review how to use the utensil and apply the pulp onto their design, over the Styrofoam bowl. Students will need to pay attention so that they understand how thick their applications of pulp need to be. I will be using my fingers to help shape the pulp into the correct design. Paper towels and sponges will be available for the students, as well. Sponges will be used to blot the pulp after each application and to wipe up water puddles.

Questions and Answers:

I will be asking the students questions that relate to the correct ways of doing each step.

Studio Time:

Students will begin to apply the pulps to their bowls. They will start from the center of their bowl and push and pat the pulps so that they attach to each other. Students will need to remember to blot water with clean sponges.

Clean-up:

I will collect the bowls into storage trays and students will be expected to wipe and dry their tables for the next class. I will select a student at each table to collect the pulp organizers, and they will be stored by my desk, in the back of the classroom. I will cover each bowl with a damp paper towel.

Day 5

Intro:

I will review the process of making a paper bowl, and a few of the bowls-in-progress will be presented to the class. Students should not be rushing to complete their bowl—I will go over this!

Questions and Answers:

I will be constantly walking around the room, making sure that each student is being careful with his or her bowl.

Studio Time:

When the pulp design covers the entire bowl, a thin, solid layer of [one color] pulp will be applied overtop; this will keep the design secure while reinforcing the bowl’s shape.

Clean-up:

All bowls will be stored in the back of the classroom and let to dry. After they are dry, the Styrofoam bowl will be removed.

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT:

For a class of about 20 students, the following supplies will be needed: Sink (s), sheets of colored construction paper, plastic buckets/vats (6), blenders, screens, additives for making paper (detergent), stretcher bars (frames [any size] some with screen wire to scoop, pour and drain the paper pulp), crayons (in order to color code the designs to coordinate with the paper pulp that will be applied) and Styrofoam bowls (used as molds), plastic spoons, and Zip lock bags.

IMPORTANT VOCABULARY: Absorb, Additives, Consistency, Couching, Deckle, Fibers, Layering, Mold, Plastic bin (Vat), Pulp, Recyclable art form, Sheet-forming, Slurry and Texture.

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION:

I will see how the students’ decisions affect their overall results. I will look and see if the student’s handmade paper bowls were created with unique geometric designs. I will evaluate the range of subject matter and see if the student invested valuable time, concerning his/her paper making processes. Students should experiment with at least three paper pulps within their bowls. I will ask my students, "Was the idea of paper making successful for you? Why or why not? What is pleasing to the eye in each bowl?" These bowls should be very personal and meaningful to each student.

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES:

SELF-ASSESSMENT/REFLECTION:

Experience + Reflection=Growth!

Day 1

Tuesday, February 1, 2005

Positive:

Mr. Rivera’s class was extremely patient and respectful. This class tends to be hard to manage, and many of the students have IEP’s. Today’s introductory lesson was phenomenal! Each student seemed interested with my visuals and many wanted to answer my questions. I felt like I had reached each individual in some way or another, and the students only showed signs of disappointment when they realized that they would not be making pulp until next week.

Minus:

If I had to teach this lesson the way I did today, over again, I would! I read and presented my presentation slowly and clearly and this was extremely helpful for each student.

What was interesting:

The students were surprised when I informed them how artists can make paper from food and other plants, including wheat, rice and cotton. China makes paper for clothing, including hats and shoes. My students were able to see how paper can be sculpted, like clay, and used for other materials. One student, in particular, shared one of his own experiences with papermaking. He had been on a field trip and had the opportunity to observe an artist make his own paper. This student respectfully shared his experience with the rest of his classmates, and this made my lesson even more worthwhile.

Day 2

Wednesday, February 2, 2005

Positive:

Mr. Schantz left and returned from the art room throughout my lesson and this helped me to work on my authority skills. I was worried that a few of the students would take advantage of this situation; however, the class kept their attention. At one point, there was too much talking and I stood, walked over to the blackboard and placed a -5 next to each table group. The students noticed immediately and I continued with my lesson.

Minus:

I did not feel as respected as I did with yesterday’s class. This lesson was introduced in the same way; however, this class seemed to have a handful of students who were fidgety, noisy and unaware of how to handle samples/visuals that were being passed around the large group. A few students failed to pass the sample papers and bowls to the person next to him/her; instead, they pushed it to one of their impatient friends. I mentioned to the class how important it is to treat any piece of artwork with respect; artists put lots of time into what they create. After three warnings, I told one student to move and sit at the blue table and the other to move and sit at the purple table. Near the end of class, I asked these two boys if they would like to see what I was demonstrating. They both nodded and so I allowed them to come forward and sit on either side of my seat.

What was interesting:

After this class had lined up in their line order, I asked Mr. Schantz if I could talk to the two students who I had told to move during my lesson. They came with me to the back of the room, and I told them the following: "Both of you like to joke around and make the other students laugh—and they do—because they like your sense of humor. They do! If you talk during my teaching, then the others will do the same. I need you both to pay attention and help me out during class. I will be giving you jobs to do and you can help the other students. Does that sound like a plan? Thank you." I will be watching for a change in their behaviors during their lesson next week.