Field Trip #3

Glacial Field Trip

(Click on images below to enlarge)

ft3_general_Map2D_0.jpg (185407 bytes)
(Source:  DeLorme 3-D TopoQuads)

Field trip #3 explores the area to the northeast of Bethlehem.  The locations of the stops are indicated by the red flags on the above map.
     Stop #1:   Monocacy Park near Moravian Campus
     Stop #2:   Camel's Hump at intersection of PA Route 512 and PA Route 22
     Stop #3:   Road cut outcrop near PA Route 22 exit near Easton.
     Stop #4:   Martin's Creek PPL Power Plant on Delaware River
     Stop #5:   Eastern Industries Gravel Pit along Jacoby Creek Road near Durham
     Stop #6:   Delaware Water Gap along PA Route 611
     Stop #7:   Summit of Mount Pocono


The main theme of field trip #3 is the modification of the landscape due to the most recent glaciation.  Sub-themes include the following:
     Stop #1:   Monocacy Creek:  Stream Behavior Past and Present
     Stop #2:   Camel's Hump: A Very Significant Minor Hill
     Stop #3:   The Exciting Precambrian / Cambrian Contact
     Stop #4:   PPL Martin's Creek Power Plant on Terminal Moraine
     Stop #5:   Ice / Water Depositional Features
     Stop #6:   Delaware Water Gap:  Structure, Topography, and History
     Stop #7:   Mt. Pocono Summit:  "Appreciation" of Glacial History

ft3_general_Map3D_1.jpg (102920 bytes)
(Source:  DeLorme 3-D TopoQuads)

The relief map above shows the field trip route.  After several stops on the floor of the Lehigh Valley, the trip passes north of Blue Mountain at Delaware Water Gap and continues north into the Pocono Mountains and climbs to the top of the Pocono Plateau at Camelback Mountain.  It then returns south by crossing Blue Mountain at Wind Gap.

PA_geology_survey_glacial_Ehalf_state.jpg (246754 bytes)
(Source:  PA Geological Survey)

The above map shows the glacial deposits in Eastern Pennsylvania.  The deposits colored rust and green on the map are from previous glaciations and will not be investigated on this field trip.  The blue on the above map is from the last incursion of the ice and is the focus of this trip.   During this last glaciation, the ice was within the borders of Pennsylvania from about 22 thousand to about 17 thousand years ago, a period of 5 thousand years.  The climate in Bethlehem during that time would have been similar to that which is found today in the Canadian arctic.